Two different methods are possible:
These use no batteries and pumping occurs only during the day when there is sufficient daylight. Special pumps must be used together with carefully matched PV modules. Water is typically pumped to fill an elevated storage tank which is sized to hold sufficient water for supply during cloudy weather or at night.
A water tank is cheaper and more durable than the equivalent energy storage in batteries.
Water is delivered by gravity pressure to points of use below the tank level.
Between the PV modules and the pump a controller is normally used. This matches the power from the PV’s to the demands of the pump motor - allowing the pump to start even in weak sunlight.
See: Solar Pumping Kits
Another option is to store energy from the PV modules in batteries which has the advantage that the water can be pumped at any time. Matching of PV modules to pump is less critical since the battery can provide sufficient surge power for starting the pump motor.
The water system can be pressurised which eliminates the need for a storage tank and water can be supplied to points of use above the source.
Many remote home systems use a battery based pumping system run on the same battery bank that is used for lighting and other appliances.